Detecting Document frauD and iDentity on the fly

Duration: September 2019 - August 2022

Funded by the EU Horizon 2020 Research Programm

Project Page


The project D4FLY aims to improve and speed up processes at European border crossing points. New methods to augment the current capabilities and capacities of border authorities during manual checks as well as at highly automated border control points are developed. This includes the use of new biometric modalities to identify people as well as new methods to detect different kinds of identity and document fraud.

Innovation and Approach

The work of Fraunhofer HHI focuses on the detection of identity fraud at border control points. In particular, Fraunhofer HHI investigates the detection of attacks using a morphed face image in a passport and on presentation attacks.

A morphed face image is a synthetically generated face image that contains biometrics features of two different subjects. If such an image is embedded into a passport, e.g. because it was provided by a passport applicant to an authority, two people can share this passport. Thus, the actual passport owner as well as a partner in crime can travel using this document. The detection methods developed within D4FLY are based on artificial neural networks.

In the case of presentation attacks, an attacker uses a passport of someone else to fake a different identity. In order to look similar to the actual passport owner, the attacker changes the appearance, e.g. by using a face mask or in the simplest case (and if the border crossing point is fully automated) holding an image in front of the camera to look like the passport image. The detection methods developed within D4FLY are based on blood flow (living skin) detection, multispectral analysis and artificial neural networks.

Project Consortium

  • Veridos GmbH (coordinator)
  • University of Reading
  • National Center for Scientific Research "Demokritos"
  • Fraunhofer HHI
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
  • Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek (TNO)
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • Trilateral Research Ltd
  • Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna im. Jarosława Dąbrowskiego
  • Raytrix GmbH
  • Regula Baltija SIA
  • OVD Kinegram
  • Ministry of Defence (Netherlands)
  • Baltijos pažangių technologijų institutas
  • Piraeus Port Authority S.A.
  • Ypiresia Diacheirisis Europaikon Kai Anaptyxiakon Programmaton (Y.D.E.A.P.)
  • UK Home Office
  • Ministry of Justice and Security
  • Lithuanian State Border Guard Service