Recent publications

November 2022

150 GBd PAM-4 Electrical Signal Generation using SiGe-Based Analog Multiplexer Ic

Jonathan Schostak, Volker Jungnickel, Ronald Freund, Tobias Tannert, Markus Grözing, Manfred Berroth, Christian Schmidt, Holger Rücker

Analog Multiplexers in Silicon-Germanium technology allow increasing the analog bandwidth of Digital-to-Analog-Converters and enable faster data transfers. We demonstrated 4-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal transmission at 150 GBd...


November 2022

New Definitions of Human Lymphoid and Follicular Cell Entities in Lymphatic Tissue by Machine Learning

Patrick Wagner, Klaus-Robert Müller, Wojciech Samek, Frederick Klauschen, Arturo Marban, Nils Strodthoff, Philipp Seegerer, Patrick Wurzel, Sonja Scharf, Hendrik Schäfer, Andreas Loth, Sylvia Hartmann, Martin-Leo Hansmann

Histological sections of the lymphatic system are usually the basis of static (2D) morphological investigations. Here, we performed a dynamic (4D) analysis of human reactive lymphoid tissue using confocal fluorescent laser microscopy in...


November 2022

Towards the Interpretability of Deep Learning Models for Multi-Modal Neuroimaging: Finding Structural Changes of the Ageing Brain

Simon M. Hofmann, Klaus-Robert Müller, Wojciech Samek, Arno Villringer, Sebastian Lapuschkin, Frauke Beyer, Markus Loeffler, A. Veronica Witte, Ole Goltermann

Brain-age (BA) estimates based on deep learning are increasingly used as neuroimaging biomarker for brain health; however, the underlying neural features have remained unclear. We combined ensembles of convolutional neural networks with...


October 2022

Time Adaptive Probabilistic Shaping for Combined Optical/THz Links

In-Ho Baek, Colja Schubert, Ronald Freund, Robert Elschner, Frederik Bart, Fred Meier, David Hellmann, Andreas Maaßen

We investigate the applicability of PAS for outdoor THz wireless links in simulations with weather-dependent loss models. Link performances are evaluated and optimal shaping entropies are determined to adjust error rates to a given FEC threshold....


October 2022

Edge Cloud based Visual Inspection for Automatic Quality Assurance in Production

Pooyan Safari, David Przewozny, Paul Chojecki, Ronald Freund, Johannes K. Fischer, Mohammad Behnam Shariati, Axel Vick, Moritz Chemnitz

We present a remote quality assurance use-case in distributed production sites that can be realized with the powerful capabilities of Artificial Intelligence (AI) combined with real-time video streaming systems and high-speed, low-latency...


October 2022

Ultra-Broadband Optical Wavelength-Conversion using Nonlinear Multi-Modal Optical Waveguides

Norbert Hanik, Colja Schubert, Ronald Freund, Lars Zimmermann, Isaac Sackey, Gregor Ronniger, Tasnad Kernetzky, Yizhao Jia, Ulrike Höfler

Ultra-Broadband Wavelength Conversion is one of the key issues of future optical networks. The physical background of ultra-broadband optical wavelength conversion in a multi-modal Silicon waveguide and methods to optimize its functionality are...


October 2022

Fixed 5th Generation Advanced and Beyond

F. J. Effenberger, D. Hillerkuss, I. Tomkos, Johannes K. Fischer, Mohammad Behnam Shariati, F. J. Effenberger, Yike Jiang, Thierno Diallo, Zhuotong Li, Wenhong Liu, Weizhao Yu, Yongli Zhao, Li Ao, Xiaobo Cao Cao, Qian Liu, Ming Jiang, Jialiang Jin, Junjie Li, Jian Tang, Anxu Zhang, Chengliang Zhang, Dezhi Zhang, Shikui Shen, Yue Sun, Xiongyan Tang, Guangquan Wang, Yuguang Chang, Raul Muñoz, Manny R. Estrada, Jorge Bonifacio, Marcus Brunner, Francis Keshmiri, Hongyu Li, Yi Lin, Xiang Liu, Frank Melinn, Jun Zhou, Qidong Zou, Steven Hill, Lloyd Mphahlele, Evandro Bender, Philippe Chanclou, Gaël Simon, Olivier Ferveur, Luca Pesando, Sandesh Manganahalli Jayaprakash, Marcel van Sambeek, Teun van der Veen, Oguzkagan Kanlidere

One of the overarching goals of the ETSI Industry Specification Group (ISG) F5G on Fifth Generation Fixed Network is to establish a regular rhythm of evolution for the fixed telecommunications network. So far, F5G has published technical...


October 2022

Towards Trustworthy AI in Dentistry

Jackie Ma, Wojciech Samek, Sebastian Lapuschkin, Falk Schwendicke, Joachim Krois, Lisa Schneider, Reduan Achtibat, Martha Duchrau

Medical and dental artificial intelligence (AI) require the trust of both users and recipients of the AI to enhance implementation, acceptability, reach, and maintenance. Standardization is one strategy to generate such trust, with quality...


October 2022

Federated Learning in Dentistry: Chances and Challenges

Roman Rischke, Karsten Müller, Wojciech Samek, Falk Schwendicke, Joachim Krois, Lisa Schneider

Building performant and robust artificial intelligence (AI)–based applications for dentistry requires large and high-quality data sets. Collaborative efforts are limited as privacy constraints forbid direct sharing across the borders of these...


October 2022

To Pretrain or Not? A Systematic Analysis of the Benefits of Pretraining in Diabetic Retinopathy

Vignesh Srinivasan, Klaus-Robert Müller, Wojciech Samek, Alexander Binder, Nils Strodthoff, Jackie Ma

In this work, we aim to understand what type of pretraining works reliably in practice and what type of pretraining dataset is best suited to achieve good performance in small target dataset size scenarios. Considering diabetic retinopathy...


October 2022

History Dependent Significance Coding for Incremental Neural Network Compression

Gerhard Tech, Karsten Müller, Thomas Wiegand, Detlev Marpe, Heiko Schwarz, Heiner Kirchhoffer, Wojciech Samek, Jonathan Pfaff, Paul Haase, Daniel Becking

This paper presents an improved probability estimation scheme for the entropy coder of Incremental Neural Network Coding (INNC), which is currently under standardization in ISO/IEC MPEG. Major finding is that the probability of a significant...


October 2022

Measurably Stronger Explanation Reliability Via Model Canonization

Franz Motzkus, Sebastian Lapuschkin, Leander Weber

Network canonization has recently been introduced, restructuring a neural network model into a functionally identical equivalent to which established explanation methods can be applied optimally. In this work, we quantitatively verify the...


October 2022

Optical Generation and Transmission of mmWave Signals in 5G ERA: Experimental Evaluation Paradigm

Efstathios Andrianopoulos, Christos Kouloumentas, Norbert Keil, David de Felipe Mesquida, Simon Nellen, Panos Groumas, Lefteris Gounaridis, Christos Tsokos, Tianwen Qian, Herkules Avramopoulos, Adam Raptakis, Nikolaos K. Lyras

We demonstrate the generation, of a mmWave signal via the injection of an optical frequency comb (OFC) into an integrated tunable dual distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser as well as the fiber transmission and the processing of this signal by...


October 2022

Ultrawideband Systems and Networks: Beyond C+L -Band

Takeshi Hoshida, Johannes Fischer, Tomoyuki Kato, Vittorio Curri, Wladek Forysiak, Lidia Galdino, David T. Neilson, Pierluigi Poggiolini

In the evolution of optical networks, enhancement of spectral efficiency (SE) enhancement has been the most cost-efficient and thus the main driver for capacity enhancementincrease for decades. As a result, the development of optical transport...


October 2022

Hyperspectral Demosaicing of Snapshot Camera Images Using Deep Learning

Eric Wisotzky, Peter Eisert, Anna Hilsmann, Charul Daudkhane

This work proposes a parallel neural network based demosaicing procedure for single-camera-one-shot-for hyperspectral imaging trained on a new ground truth dataset captured in a controlled environment by a hyperspectral snapshot camera with a 4×4...


September 2022

Advanced DSP-based Monitoring for Spatially resolved and Wavelength-dependent Amplifier Gain Estimation and Fault Location in C+L-band Systems

Matheus Ribeiro Sena, Colja Schubert, Ronald Freund, Johannes Fischer, Antonio Napoli, Vittorio Curri, Robert Emmerich, Wladek Forysiak, Mohammad Behnam Shariati, Caio Marciano Santos, Pratim Hazarika, Bruno Correia

We study the benefits of applying advanced DSP-based monitoring on multiple wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) channels allocated in the optical grid to infer wavelength-wise characteristics of a C+L-band optical line system. In that context,...


September 2022

Experimental Investigation of Information Bit Scrambling for Physical-Layer Security in Coherent Fiber-Optic Systems

Carsten Schmidt-Langhorst, Colja Schubert, Robert Elschner, Robert F. H. Fischer, Robert Emmerich, Johannes Pfeiffer, Fabian Chowanek, In-Ho Baek

We experimentally demonstrate tap-proof coherent optical 640-Gb/s transmission based on encryption-less physical layer security. Information bit scrambling combined with soft-decision error-correction coding yields favorably small security gaps,...


August 2022

Perfusion Assessment via Local Remote Photoplethysmography (rPPG)

Benjamin Kossack, Peter Eisert, Anna Hilsmann, Eric Wisotzky, Sebastian Schraven, Brigitta Globke

We present an approach to assess the perfusion of visible human tissue from RGB video files. We show that locally resolved rPPG-signals can be used for intraoperative perfusion analysis and visualization during skin and organ transplantation as...


August 2022

Explaint to not Forget: Defending Against Catastrophic Forgetting with XAI

Sami Ede, Wojciech Samek, Sebastian Lapuschkin, Leander Weber, Serop Baghdadlian, An Nguyen, Dario Zanca

The ability to continuously process and retain new information like we do naturally as humans is a feat that is highly sought after when training neural networks. Unfortunately, the traditional optimization algorithms often require large amounts...


August 2022

Customizing the Appearance of Sparks with Binary Metal Alloys

Philipp Memmel, Wolfgang Schade, Jannis Koch, Mingji Li, Eike Hübner, Felix Lederle, Martin Söftje

Alloys consisting of >65 at. % of a brightly emitting and low-boiling-point metal and a carrier metal allow achieving long-flying deeply colored sparks. Besides the color, branching of sparks is crucial for the visual appearance. Rare-earth...



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